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TOEFL Reading Practice Test and Answer Key (Soal Reading TOEFL dan kunci jawabannya) 04

TOEFL Reading Practice Test and Answer Key (Soal Reading TOEFL dan kunci jawabannya) 05

As the twentieth century began, the importance of formal education in the United
States increased The frontier had mostly disappeared and by 1910 most Americans
lived in towns and cities. Industrialization and the bureaucratization of economic
line life combined with a new emphasis upon credentials and expertise to make schooling
(5)  increasingly important for economic and social mobility. Increasingly, too, schools
were viewed as the most important means of integrating immigrants into American
The arrival of a great wave of southern and eastern European immigrants at the turn
of the century coincided with and contributed to an enormous expansion of formal
(10) schooling. By 1920 schooling to age fourteen or beyond was compulsory in most
states, and the school year was greatly lengthened. Kindergartens, vacation schools,
extracurricular activities, and vocational education and counseling extended the
influence of public schools over the lives of students, many of whom in the larger
industrial cities were the children of immigrants. Classes for adult immigrants were
(15) sponsored by public schools, corporations, unions, churches, settlement houses, and
other agencies.
Reformers early in the twentieth century suggested that education programs should
suit the needs of specific populations. Immigrant women were one such population.
Schools tried to educate young women so they could occupy productive places in the
(20) urban industrial economy, and one place many educators considered appropriate for
women was the home.
Although looking after the house and family was familiar to immigrant women,
American education gave homemaking a new definition. In preindustrial economies,
homemaking had meant the production as well as the consumption of goods, and it
(25) commonly included income-producing activities both inside and outside the home,
in the highly industrialized early-twentieth-century United States, however,
overproduction rather than scarcity was becoming a problem. Thus, the ideal American
homemaker was viewed as a consumer rather than a producer. Schools trained women
to be consumer homemakers cooking, shopping, decorating, and caring for children
(30) "efficiently" in their own homes, or if economic necessity demanded, as employees
in the homes of others. Subsequent reforms have made these notions seem quite

TOEFL Reading Practice Test and Answer Key (Soal Reading TOEFL dan kunci jawabannya) 04

TOEFL Reading Practice Test and Answer Key (Soal Reading TOEFL dan kunci jawabannya) 04

44. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that one
important factor in the increasing importance
of education in the United States was
(A) the growing number of schools in frontier
(B) an increase in the number of trained
(C) the expanding economic problems of
(D) the increased urbanization of the entire

45. The word "means" in line 6 is closest in
meaning to
(A) advantages
(B) probability
(C) method
(D) qualifications

46. The phrase "coincided with" in line 9 is
closest in meaning to
(A) was influenced by
(B) happened at the same time as
(C) began to grow rapidly
(D) ensured the success of

47. According to the passage, one important
change in United States education by the
1920's was that
(A) most places required children to attend
(B) the amount of time spent on formal
education was limited
(C) new regulations were imposed on
nontraditional education
(D) adults and children studied in the same

48. Vacation schools and extracurricular activities
are mentioned in lines 11-12 to illustrate
(A) alternatives to formal education
provided by public schools
(B) the importance of educational changes
(C) activities that competed to attract new
immigrants to their programs.
(D) the increased impact of public schools on

49. According to the passage, early-twentiethcentury
education reformers believed that
(A) different groups needed different kinds of
(B) special programs should be set up in
frontier communities to modernize them
(C) corporations and other organizations
damaged educational progress
(D) more women should be involved in
education and industry

50. The word "it" in line 24 refers to
(A) consumption
(B) production
(C) homemaking
(D) education