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TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test and Answer Key

The principal difference between urban growth in Europe and in the American
colonies was the slow evolution of cities in the former and their rapid growth in the latter.
       In Europe they grew over a period of centuries from town economies to their present]
(Line)  urban structure. In North America, they started as wilderness communities and developed
(5)   to mature urbanism’s in little more than a century.
    In the early colonial day in North America, small cities sprang up along the Atlantic
Coastline, mostly in what are now New America, small cities sprang up along the Atlantic
United States and in the lower Saint Lawrence valley in Canada. This was natural
because these areas were nearest England and France, particularly England, from which
  (10 ) most capital goods (assets such as equipment) and many consumer goods were imported
Merchandising establishments were, accordingly, advantageously located in port cities
   from which goods could be readily distributed to interior settlements. Here, too, were the
   favored locations for processing raw materials prior to export. Boston, Philadelphia, New
   York, Montreal, and other cities flourished, and, as the colonies grew, these cities
  (15)  increased in importance.
               This was less true in the colonial South, where life centered around large farms, known
as plantations, rather than around towns, as was the case in the areas further north along
the Atlantic coastline. The local isolation and the economic self-sufficiency of the
plantations were antagonistic to the development of the towns. The plantations
(20)    maintained their independence because they were located on navigable streams and each
had a wharf accessible to the small shipping of that day. In face, one of the strongest
factors in the selection of plantation land was the desire to have it front on a water
        When the United States became an independent nation in 1776, it did not have a single
(25)    city as large as 50,000 inhabitants, but by 1820 it had a city of more than 10,000 people,
and by 1880 it had recorded a city of over one million. It was not until after 1823, after
the mechanization of the spinning had weaving industries, that cities started drawing
young people away from farms. Such migration was particularly rapid following the Civil
War (1861-1865).

9. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Factors that slowed the growth of cities in
(B) The evolution of cities in North America
(C) Trade between North American and
   European cities
(D)The effects of the United Sates’
   independence on urban growth in New
10. The word “they” in line 4 refers to
   (A) North American colonies
   (B) cities
   (C) centuries
   (D) town economies

11. The passage compares early European and
   North American cities on the basis of which
   of the following?
(A) Their economic success
(B) The type of merchandise they exported
(C) Their ability to distribute goods to
   interior settlements
(D)The pace of their development

12.The Word “accordingly” in line 11 is closest in
  meaning to
  (A) as usual
  (B) in contrast
  (C) to some degree
  (D)for that reason

13. According to the passage, early colonial cities
   were established along the Atlantic coastline
   of North America due to
(A) an abundance of natural resources
(B) financial support from colonial
(C) proximity to parts of Europe
(D) a favorable climate

14. The passage indicates that during colonial
   times, the Atlantic coastline cities prepared
   which of the following for shipment to
(A) Manufacturing equipment
(B) Capital goods
(C) Consumer goods
(D) Raw materials

15. According to the passage, all of the
 following aspects of the plantation system
 influenced the growth of southern cities
 (A) location of the plantations
 (B) access of plantation owners to shipping
 (C) relationships between plantation
    residents and city residents
   (D) economic self-sufficiency of the

16. It can be inferred from the passage that, in
   comparison with northern, cities, most
   southern cities were
   (A) imagined
   (B) discovered
   (C) documented

17. The word “recorded” in line 26 is closest in
   meaning to
   (A) imagined
   (B) discovered
   (C) documented
   (D) planned

18.The word “drawing” in line 27 is closest in
   meaning to
(A) attracting
(B) employing
(C) instructing
(D) representing

19. The passage mentions the period following
   the Civil War (line28-29) because it was a
   time of
  (A) significant obstacles to industrial growth
  (B) decreased dependence on foreign trade
  (C) increased numbers of people leaving
 employment on farms
  (D) increased migration from northern states to
     southern states


Answer Key


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